Kennzahlen München

Key figures for Munich

Key facts, figures, and characteristics of Munich’s economy, labor market, infrastructure and investment plans.

Key economic figures

Munich, as the capital of Bavaria and both a national and international hub, boasts outstanding characteristics. These characteristics form the basis of Munich’s economic strength. 

Munich is a large part of why Bavaria and southern Germany as a whole are particularly strong economically.     

Our fact sheet contains the latest economic facts and figures for the region:

Chart: Munich as a business location. Facts and figures 2023. Page 5.

Central location, outstanding infrastructure

Traffic and transport hub

Munich is a key transport hub, connecting central, eastern and south-eastern Europe via an excellent railway and road system.

Aviation hub
Munich Airport is a prominent European aviation hub, serving around 210 destinations worldwide. In 2019, both passenger numbers (48 million) and cargo transport hit new highs. The airport is equipped with all the latest technology, and prior to the pandemic some 340,000 tons of freight passed through here annually. By 2022, commercial air cargo reached 258,857 tons again.

New Central Station
Munich Central Station (Hauptbahnhof), Germany’s second largest passenger train station, is currently undergoing a major upgrade. The main building, the northern side wing, and the forecourts are being modernized or reconstructed, and will have extra commercial space. Deutsche Bahn, the federal government and Free State of Bavaria are also expanding and improving all aspects of rail transport in the western and eastern parts of the city center.

From public transport network to integrated mobility platform
Munich’s public transport system comprises a 434 km S-Bahn, 95 km U-Bahn, 82km tram and 534 km inner-city bus network. 737 million passenger journeys were undertaken in 2019. The network is constantly expanding to keep pace with the city’s growth. Munich is also continuously developing its “Mobility Strategy 2035”, which is creating interconnected, greener, sustainable and space-saving mobility services for all citizens, as part of the transition to a smart city.

Germany’s DAX capital

Skulptur Walking Man vor dem Haupteingang von Munich Re in München

Seven of Bavaria’s nine DAX-listed companies are based in Munich and its surrounding area - more than in any other urban region in Germany.

The market capitalization of Munich’s DAX-listed companies accounts for around €368 billion or one quarter of the total DAX value.

Munich is also Germany’s top-ranking city for MDAX, SDAX, and especially Tec-DAX-listed companies.

Munich is renowned for its many illustrious companies and in particular the broad range of market leaders in various sectors.

Highest purchasing power in Germany

Munich and several districts in the region boast the highest purchasing power in Germany. The figure in Munich for 2022 was €34,442 per inhabitant, 36.5 percent above the federal average. This reflects the region’s strong employment situation and relatively high wages and salaries.

Investors regard purchasing power as a key indicator for consumption, which makes Munich a desirable location for luxury goods. However, Munich’s rents and property prices are also among Germany’s highest. The high prices and cost of living in the region also reduce purchasing power somewhat.


Labor market

Low unemployment


Munich has one of the lowest unemployment rates among major German cities – just 3.9 percent in 2022, the same as Stuttgart.

The pandemic did have a drastic, temporary impact on tourism, culture, events, and certain parts of the retail sector, but other industries more than offset this.

Sectors with strong employment growth include ICT, business-support services, and healthcare and social services.

Demand for skilled workers with STEM qualifications (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) remains high in Munich. There is also great demand for skilled workers in the trades sector, construction, and healthcare and social services.


Great labor market potential


Around 138,000 students are enrolled at four universities and 14 universities of applied science and academies in Munich and the surrounding region. 43 percent study STEM subjects, which is above the German average.

Munich’s Universities of Excellence, TUM and LMU, and the University of Applied Sciences cover an enormous spectrum of internationally renowned degree programs and research areas. Some 22,000 individuals graduate in Munich each year and enter employment.

Around 40 percent of people in socially insured jobs in Munich have a university degree, the highest rate of anywhere in Germany.

Numerous young and highly qualified people from abroad also come to Munich.

In addition, many people obtain dual education and training in companies from Munich’s broad range of sectors. Companies can’t always fill all apprenticeship places. Applicants with a flexible approach are desired.

International and diverse

Ein bunter Menschen-Mix am Weißenburger Platz vor dem Brunnen im Gegenlicht

Munich is a highly diverse economic powerhouse with strong international ties. Around 30 percent of the region’s 1.58 million inhabitants have foreign citizenship – from 180 different countries in total. This makes Munich one of Germany’s most popular cities for foreign nationals.

There are 16 international schools, numerous services for native speaker additional tuition, and more than 70 bilingual preschool facilities and parent initiatives here.

More than 100 countries have diplomatic offices in Munich. More than 90 business clubs, chambers of commerce, and networks promote international cooperation in the business community.

Further details are available here:

Investing in Munich’s future

Not only the financial consequences of the pandemic, but also the Russian war of aggression on Ukraine brought an increase in debt for the previously almost debt-free city of Munich. However, a necessary debt had already been announced beforehand by the multi-year investment plan for major projects. The city continues to adhere to these multi-year priorities in order to ensure that Munich remains fit for the future and worth living for its citizens.

The 2023 budget provides for investments of 2 billion euros in the following important concerns:

  •     school and daycare construction
  •     social assistance
  •     affordable housing
  •     Expansion and renovation of public transportation

Investments totaling €11.19 billion are planned between 2022 and 2026. This places Munich at the top level of municipal investment in Germany.

Munich has privatized comparatively few public assets in the past. The city either owns or is directly involved in 26 companies and has a minority shareholding in various other organizations, for example in the key areas of energy and water supply, telecommunications, waste management, housing, and healthcare.

The city is closely involved in these areas in order to raise and maintain living standards and social equality.

Other topics of interest


Munich is Germany’s second most important start-up hotspot after Berlin. 215 companies were founded here in 2022. Seven startups in the Munich region are valued at one billion dollars or more.

Gründer- und Innovationszentrum

Innovation ecosystem

Munich drives innovation in Germany. The region’s exceptional innovation ecosystem attracts not only major tech companies, but also outstanding talents from around the globe, who come here to study, research, work in a local company or start their own business.

Team aus vier Personen im Austausch am Computer

Universities and universities of applied science

There are numerous and varied opportunities to study in Munich. In addition to three major universities there are more than 16 smaller, private and public universities of applied science and specialist academies.

Hauptgebäude der TUM in der Arcisstraße, Fassade, davor Fußgänger und Radfahrer